Monday, April 18, 2011

High-molecular-weight aliphatic compounds of nitrogen and sulfur

The principle of homology has been studied in its relation to high-molecular-weight aliphatic sulfur and nitrogen compounds and has been found to apply in the cases of long-chained amine salts and amides of the normal carboxylic acids, with long-chained pyrrole derivatives, and with long-chained sulfides, sulfoxides and sulfones. Each of these compounds is formed by reactions similar to those used in preparing lower-molecular-weight homologs and have regular variations in physical properties.

The use of long-chained amine salts has been suggested as derivatives for the identification of carboxylic acids. Sulfoxides and sulfones are indicated as the logical derivatives for long-chained thio ethers.

Limitations in the application of the homology concept were found in attempts to prepare long-chained sulfonal-type compounds, and the low reactivity of long-chained mercaptans in the formation of mercaptols was demonstrated.

The proposed preparation of normal long-chained alcohols from the corresponding amines was found to be subject to serious limitations which restrict this reaction as a method of preparing the alcohols.

Liquid phase nitration of lauric acid has been accomplished. However, the nitrated material was obtained in poor yields and the reaction was secondary to the oxidizing action of the nitrating reagents.

Sulfonation of stearonitrile and stearic acid yielded water-soluble material under conditions which indicate that oxidation is an integral phase of the reaction.

A number of techniques have been developed for applying the reactions of low-molecular weight compounds to the corresponding long-chained types.

Uses have been proposed for many of the new compounds and some of the substances hold the possibility of becoming commercially important.

Friday, March 11, 2011

Aliphatic compound

Aliphatic compound

In organic chemistry, compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen are divided into two classes:

Aromatic compounds, which contain benzene rings or similar rings of atoms, and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil), which do not contain aromatic rings.

In aliphatic compounds, carbon atoms can be joined together in straight chains, branched chains, or non-aromatic rings